# Ratio Analysis Types

The market price information was given in the market capitalization example, and we calculated earnings per share earlier in the chapter. Prior to the company’s bankruptcy filing in 2009, General Motors was the largest manufacturer of automobiles and trucks in the world . However, GM took on substantial amounts of debt over several years.

### What does it mean if the current ratio is above 2?

The higher the ratio, the more liquid the company is. … If the current ratio is too high (much more than 2), then the company may not be using its current assets or its short-term financing facilities efficiently. This may also indicate problems in working capital management.

This ratio increased from 2009 to 2010 and is higher than PepsiCo’s 11.7 percent. Another indicator of how a corporation performed is the dividend yield. It measures the return in cash dividends earned by an investor on one share of the company’s stock.

## Receivables Turnover Ratio

Indicates whether a company has sufficient quick assets to cover current liabilities. Market ratios measure investor response to owning a company’s stock and also the cost of issuing stock. These are concerned with the return on investment for shareholders, and with the relationship between return and the value of an investment in company’s shares. The times interest earned ratio is an indicator of the company’s ability to pay interest as it comes due.

• These ratios compare the debt levels of a company to its assets, equity, or annual earnings.
• Different industries have different levels of expected liquidity.
• Analysts and shareholders should avoid drawing quick conclusions that increases in return on common shareholders’ equity are always better than decreases without thoroughly reviewing the rest of the data.
• Instead of dissecting financial statements to compare how profitable companies are, an investor can use this ratio instead.
• The industry comparison approach is used for sector analysis, to determine which businesses within an industry are the most valuable.
• Calculate the debt to equity ratio, and briefly describe what it means for PepsiCo.

Very few industries are able to convert inventory to cash as quickly. Examples of inventory and receivable turnover for several industries are shown in the following. Indicates how many days it takes on average to collect credit sales. Calculated as 365 days divided by receivables turnover ratio. Figure 13.9 “Return on Assets and Return on Equity for ” shows the return on assets and return on equity for Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and the industry average. Indicates the net income generated from each dollar in average assets. Calculated as net income divided by average total assets.

## Market Valuation Measures

Calculated as 365 days divided by inventory turnover ratio. The return on assets ratio indicates Coca-Cola generated 19.4 cents in net income for every dollar in average assets.

They use the data to determine if a company’s financial health is on an upward or downward trend and to draw comparisons to other competing firms. Coca-Cola’s market capitalization indicates that the company’s shares outstanding had a market value totaling \$146,500,000,000 at the end of 2010. This amount increased significantly from 2009 to 2010 and is higher than PepsiCo’s \$100,700,000,000. Both Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are above the industry average of \$87,500,000. Indicates how many days it takes on average to sell the company’s inventory.

## Inventory Turnover Ratio

A financial ratio, or accounting ratio, is derived from a company’s financial statements and is a calculation showing the relative magnitude of selected numerical values taken from those financial statements. These ratios are measurements used to examine the ability of an organization to pay off its short-term obligations. Liquidity ratios are commonly used by prospective creditors and lenders to decide whether to extend credit or debt, respectively, to companies. Examples of liquidity ratios are the cash ratio, current ratio, and quick ratio. Liquidity ratios measure a company’s ability to meet its debt obligations using its current assets. When a company is experiencing financial difficulties and is unable to pay its debts, it can convert its assets into cash and use the money to settle any pending debts with more ease. Net profit margin, often referred to simply as profit margin or the bottom line, is a ratio that investors use to compare the profitability of companies within the same sector.

• Cash flow affects the company’s ability to obtain debt and equity financing.
• This type of ratio helps in measuring the ability of a company in earning sufficient profits.
• The trend can indicate financial difficulties that would not otherwise be apparent if ratios were being examined for a single period.
• In most cases, it is also important to understand the variables driving ratios as management has the flexibility to, at times, alter its strategy to make its stock and company ratios more attractive.
• Because of variations in these factors from one company to the next, a more stringent measure of short-term liquidity is often used.
• Efficiency ratios measure how well the business is using its assets and liabilities to generate sales and earn profits.

This ratio decreased from 2009 to 2010 and is much higher than PepsiCo’s 10.10 times. Coca-Cola is also higher than the industry average of 10.70 times. It appears that Coca-Cola has plenty of earnings to cover interest expense. Indicates the balance of liabilities and shareholders’ equity used to fund assets.

## How Does Financial Ratio Analysis Work?

Calculated as total liabilities divided by total shareholders’ equity. Retail grocery stores turn inventory over every 22 days, meaning that shelves are emptied and restocked about every three weeks. In addition to extremely fast inventory turnover, retail grocery stores collect credit sales in seven days. Thus it takes 29 days, on average, to convert freshly stocked inventory to cash.

Ratio analysis is one method an investor can use to gain that understanding. A financial ratio, or accounting ratio, shows the relative magnitude of selected numerical values taken from those financial statements. Liquidity ratios are used by banks, creditors, and suppliers to determine if a client has the ability to honor their financial obligations as they come due. Liquidity ratios are a class of financial metrics used to determine a debtor’s ability to pay off current debt obligations without raising external capital. For every dollar in current liabilities, PepsiCo had \$1.11 in current assets.

## Financial Ratio Analysis

The current ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Investors and analysts employ ratio analysis to evaluate the financial health of companies by scrutinizing past and current financial statements.

Four ratios used to evaluate short-term liquidity are the current ratio, the quick ratio, the receivables turnover ratio , and the inventory turnover ratio . Banks, bondholders, and other long-term lenders often evaluate whether companies can meet long-term obligations.

## Profitability Ratios

Quick assets are defined as cash, marketable (or short‐term) securities, and accounts receivable and notes receivable, net of the allowances for doubtful accounts. These assets are considered to be very liquid and therefore, available for immediate use to pay obligations. The acid‐test ratio is calculated by dividing quick assets by current liabilities. This ratio indicates the company has more current assets than current liabilities.

It calculates the number of days it will take to collect the average receivables balance. It is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of a company’s credit and collection policies. A rule of thumb is the average collection period should not be significantly greater than a company’s credit term period. The average collection period is calculated by dividing 365 by the receivables turnover ratio. Financial statement analysis is the process of understanding the risk and profitability of a firm through analysis of reported financial information. Ratio analysis is a foundation for evaluating and pricing credit risk and for doing fundamental company valuation.

## Using Ratio Analysis To Compare Different Companies

Financial ratios are only valuable if there is a basis of comparison for them. Each ratio should be compared to past time periods of data for the business. They can also be compared to data for other companies in the industry. There are various types of financial ratios, grouped by their relevance to different aspects of a company’s business as well as to their interest to different audiences.

### Is goodwill A accounting principle?

Goodwill is an important accounting concept in investing. Shown on the balance sheet, goodwill is an intangible asset that is created when one company acquires another company for a price greater than its net asset value.

The inventory turnover ratio indicates Coca-Cola sold and restocked inventory 5.07 times during 2010. This ratio increased slightly from 2009 to 2010 and is substantially lower than PepsiCo’s 8.87 times.

## Examples Of Ratios Used In Financial Analysis

A higher liquidity ratio represents that the company is highly rich in cash. The numbers contained in financial statements need to be put into context so that investors can better understand different aspects of the company’s operations.

• A more stable and mature company is likely to pay out a higher portion of its earnings as dividends.
• The current ratio is also called the working capital ratio, as working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.
• Coca-Cola is well below the industry average of 7.50 times.
• For every dollar in net sales, PepsiCo generated 10.9 cents in net income.
• Full BioAmy is an ACA and the CEO and founder of OnPoint Learning, a financial training company delivering training to financial professionals.