# Paid-In Capital: Examples, Calculation, and Excess of Par Value

In conclusion, the total paid-in capital from our hypothetical transaction is \$100k, composed of \$100 in common stock (par value) and \$99.9k in additional paid-in capital (APIC). The paid-in capital reflects the total capital contributions received from shareholders from raising capital through the issuance of equity. The sum of common stock and additional paid-in capital represents the paid-in capital. Common stock is a component of paid-in capital, which is the total amount received from investors for stock. Paid-in capital appears as a credit (that is, an increase) to the paid-in capital section of the balance sheet, and as a debit, or increase, to cash. A company certainly has a great interest in its stock price from day to day, but not because its balance sheet is immediately affected for better or worse.

The paid-in capital of a company measures the total cash that shareholders contributed to the company in exchange for the receipt of shares in the company. However, investors may be willing to pay \$2 per share to invest in the company. Additional paid-in capital represents the extra \$1 investors paid to the company above its original \$1 par value.

## How Additional Paid-in Capital (APIC) Works

Therefore, the total paid-in capital is \$40,000 (\$4,000 par value of the shares + \$36,000 amount of additional capital in excess of par). For sales of common stock, paid-in capital, also referred to as contributed capital, consists of a stock’s par value plus any amount paid in excess of par value. In contrast, additional paid-in capital refers only to the amount of capital in excess of par value, or the premium paid by investors in return for the shares issued to them. Additional paid-in capital is the amount of capital contributed to a company by an investor that is greater than the par value of the issued stock. It represents the price that an investor is willing to pay for the stock in excess of its par value, in exchange for a stake in the company.

Additional paid-in capital can only occur when an investor purchases stock directly from a company in the primary market via initial public offering (IPO). When an investor purchases from a company in the primary market, the proceeds from the sale go directly to the company issuing the stocks. Suppose a public company decided to issue 10,000 shares of common stock with a par value of \$0.01 per share to raise capital in the form of equity capital. This calculation only includes shares sold by the company to raise capital. If the shares are sold, but don’t provide capital to the company, those proceeds won’t appear on the company’s financial statements, and are therefore not paid-in capital of any kind.

There is no impact on the company’s financials when a sale occurs in the secondary market. The credit to the common stock (par value) account reflects the par value of the shares issued. Considering the par value per share is \$0.01 (and 10,000 shares were distributed), the value of the common stock is \$100.

## Additional Paid-In Capital (APIC)

The shares bought back are listed within the shareholders’ equity section at their repurchase price as treasury stock, a contra-equity account that reduces the total balance of shareholders’ equity. In accounting terms, additional paid-in capital is the value of a company’s shares above the value at which they were issued. Any new issuance of preferred or common shares may increase the paid-in capital as the excess value is recorded. According to this balance sheet, Walmart Inc. has issued common stock with a par value of \$269 million as of January 31, 2023. The total paid in-capital was, therefore, \$5.238 billion, as of January 2023.

1. It is an important layer of defense against potential business losses if retained earnings show a deficit.
2. If the initial repurchase price of the treasury stock was higher than the amount of paid-in capital related to the number of shares retired, then the loss reduces the company’s retained earnings.
3. The paid-in capital metric equals the sum of the par value and APIC, meaning APIC is intended to capture the “premium” paid by investors.
4. The balance sheet number on paid-in capital may reflect transactions in common shares, preferred shares, treasury stock, or some combination of all of these.
5. The par value of the issued stock goes to the common or preferred stock line, while the amount paid by investors above and beyond the par value goes to the additional paid-in capital line.
6. This content is for general information purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with professional advisors.

Meanwhile, investors may elect to pay any amount above this declared par value of a share price, which generates the APIC. Upon multiplying the excess spread over the stated par value by the number of common shares outstanding, we arrive at an additional paid-in capital (APIC) value of \$49.9 million. To reiterate, the APIC account can only increase if the issuer were to sell more shares to investors, in which the issuance price exceeds the par value of the shares. When a private company decides to go public in an initial public offering (IPO), its equity is offered to the public for the first time. The additional paid-in capital (APIC) represents the excess amount paid in total by investors above the par value of a company’s shares.

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## What Is the Difference Between Common Stock and Paid-In Capital?

To elaborate on the prior section, the debit to the cash account captures the total cash proceeds retrieved from shareholders. Since the shares are sold at \$10.00 each for 10,000 shares, the company raised \$100,000 in the transaction. On the balance sheet, the par value of outstanding shares is recorded to common stock, and the excess (that is, the amount the market price adds to par value) is recorded to additional paid-in capital. Investors value preferred stock shares for their steady returns, not for their price growth, which can be minimal.

So movements in the company’s share price – whether upward or downward – have no effect on the stated APIC amount on the balance sheet because these transactions do not directly involve the issuer. The issue price of stock is the price at which shares are initially sold by a company in the primary market when they are first offered to the public (IPO – Initial Public Offering). The credit to the additional paid-in capital (APIC) account captures the excess paid over the par value. Therefore, the difference between the credit to the cash account and the common stock (par value) is the amount recorded in the APIC account, which is \$99.9k.

## Benefits of Additional Paid-in Capital

APIC is a great way for companies to generate cash without having to give any collateral in return. Furthermore, purchasing shares at a company’s IPO can be incredibly profitable for some investors. Additional paid-in capital (APIC) is an accounting term referring to money an investor pays above and beyond the par value price of a stock. Additional paid-in capital is the difference between a share’s printed value and the amount the share is sold on the market.

## What is the Difference Between Additional Paid-in Capital and Paid-in Capital?

A mature company should have more earned capital than paid-in capital. Earned capital is an indication of the amount of money that a company is actually taking in for its goods and services. We can help you get started over at our Broker Center, where you’ll also find plenty of helpful links to brokers who can get you invested. Founded in 1993, The Motley Fool is a financial services company dedicated to making the world smarter, happier, and richer.

Paid-In Capital, or “Contributed Capital”, measures the funds raised via stock issuances, where shares are exchanged to investors for partial ownership in the issuer’s equity. After the IPO, none of the daily stock movements will have an impact on the additional paid-in capital number in this example. This is because those trades do not generate any capital for the company, and therefore they have no impact on the company’s balance sheet. Only the shares sold by the company to raise capital should be included in the calculation. First, we subtract the par value (or the price the company originally set when the market opened) from the issue price (which is the price the market actually paid).