# Financial Ratios Definition, Categories, Key Solvency Ratios

The net profit margin ratio is calculated as net income divided by net sales. This ratio measures the proportion of sales revenue that translates into net profit, revealing the company’s overall profitability and financial performance. This ratio measures the proportion of a company’s assets financed by shareholders’ equity, providing insights into the company’s capital structure and financial stability. The asset turnover ratio is calculated as net sales divided by total assets.

Liquidity ratios measure a company’s capacity to meet its short-term obligations and are a vital indicator of its financial health. Liquidity is different from solvency, which measures a company’s ability to pay all its debts. In the sporting world, Italian football club Lazio faces a now-infamous liquidity ratio preventing it from signing new players.

He holds a Bachelor of Science in marketing from York College of Pennsylvania. The following figures are as of March 27th, 2021, and come from Apple’s balance sheet. In this article, we’ll look at each ratio category, the formulas, and some essential explanations.

## Example: Price-to-Earnings

Financial planning and analysis professionals calculate financial ratios for the following reasons for internal reasons. If these benchmarks are not met, an entire loan may be callable or a company may be faced with an adjusted higher rate of interest to compensation for this risk. An example of a benchmark set by a lender is often the debt service coverage ratio which measures a company’s cash flow against it’s debt balances. Comparisons made with financial ratios give investors the opportunity to draw comprehensive conclusions about prospective investments. Financial ratios are a great way to gain an understanding of a company’s potential for success.

• You might also compare historical perspectives of ratios for various companies.
• These ratios convey how well a company can generate profits from its operations.
• These ratios encompass various aspects, including liquidity, solvency, profitability, efficiency, and market valuation.
• The most useful comparison when performing financial ratio analysis is trend analysis.
• The fundamental basis of ratio analysis is to compare multiple figures and derive a calculated value.

When companies pay out dividends to shareholders, the value of dividends received for each share owned is known as the dividend per share. Shareholders and analysts compare the dividend per share to the company’s share price using the dividend yield ratio. The book value per share measures the value per share for common equity owners based on the balance sheet value of assets less liabilities and preference shares. It is important that companies can readily convert account receivables to cash.

## Trend Analysis: Evaluating Financial Ratios Over Time

The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is calculated as the market price per share divided by book value per share. The gross margin ratio is calculated as gross profit divided by net sales. This ratio measures the proportion of sales revenue remaining after deducting the cost of goods sold (COGS), indicating the company’s gross profitability and pricing strategy effectiveness. The debt-to-equity ratio is calculated as total liabilities divided by total equity. This ratio compares the company’s debt financing to equity financing, helping stakeholders assess the company’s financial risk and leverage.

• Ratios help an owner or other interested parties develop an understand the overall financial health of the company.
• Finally, it can be eye-opening to compare a ratio calculated recently to the same ratio calculated over time for a single company to get a historical perspective of performance.
• Based on this calculation, Apple’s quick ratio was 0.83 as of the end of March 2021.
• Ratio analysis is important because it may portray a more accurate representation of the state of operations for a company.
• By understanding these critical aspects, stakeholders can gain valuable insights into a company’s financial position and growth potential.
• So, it’s important to compare a company’s P/E ratio to that of other companies in the same industry and to the P/E for the industry itself.

Financial Ratios are used to measure financial performance against standards. Analysts compare financial ratios to industry averages (benchmarking), industry standards or rules of thumbs and against internal trends (trends analysis). The most useful comparison when performing financial ratio analysis is trend analysis.

## Sales Financial Analysis

A company’s common equity is what common shareholders own after all liabilities and preference shares have been settled from total assets. These ratios are usually used by external stakeholders such as investors or market analysts but can also be used by internal management to monitor value per company share. The operating margin measures how much profit a company generates from net sales after accounting for the cost of goods sold and operating expenses. First, ratio analysis can be performed to track changes to a company over time to better understand the trajectory of operations.

Bear in mind that different industries have substantially different P/E ratios. So, it’s important to compare a company’s P/E ratio to that of other companies in the same industry and to the P/E for the industry itself. That’s because a company’s executive or management team has the flexibility to, at times, alter its strategies to make a company’s ratios and stock appear more attractive. Essentially, profitability analysis seeks to determine whether a company will make a profit. It examines business productivity from multiple angles using a few different scenarios. Commonly used financial ratios can be divided into the following five categories.

## Price-To-Book (P/B) Ratio

The dividend yield is an important ratio for investors as it illustrates the return on their investment. Each category of financial ratios serves a distinct purpose in decision-making, helping businesses, investors, and other stakeholders make informed choices. Efficiency ratios gauge a company’s operational effectiveness by examining how well it manages its assets, inventory, and receivables.

Financial ratios are derived from the three financial statements; Balance Sheet, Income Statement and Statement of Cash Flows. The price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio is calculated as the market price per share divided by earnings per share (EPS). This ratio measures the price investors are willing to pay for each dollar of earnings, indicating the market’s perception of a company’s growth potential and stock valuation. The quick ratio, also known as the acid-test ratio, is calculated as (current assets – inventory) divided by current liabilities.

Debt to equity refers to the amount of money and retained earnings invested in the company. The dividend yield ratio measures the value of a company’s dividend per share compared to the market share price. The asset turnover ratio measures how much net sales are made from average assets.