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Author: Quentin Dcon

Quentin Dcon specializes in accounting in this field requires a specialist's analytical skills, endurance and ability to work with a lot of information. He is here to share the latest news on accounting. Questions can be asked by email: [email protected]
    Zoho Books Review

    Zoho Books Review

    Zoho Books is a cloud software for accountants and bookkeepers. It is perfect for small and growing businesses. It allows growing companies to manage their books, to send the accounts, and to process payments in the same system. The system includes:

    • tracing of stocks in the system of real-time;
    • tracing and control of the expenses;
    • automated banking;
    • a special portal for clients and so on.

    There are positive reviews about Zoho Books written by many users. However, negative reviews are quite rare. Also, the pricing is reasonable and available. 

    Tax Free simple explanation

    Tax Free simple explanation

    Tax-free is a system for returning the amount of value-added tax (VAT). The VAT is refunded on purchases made by foreign citizens when they cross the border of the country in which they were purchased. The refund amounts usually range from 8% to 25% of the amount of the tax free purchase, depending on the country where the shopping took place. 

    Legal entities can also return a portion of the money spent – there is a tax-free business system for them to return the amount of VAT on expenses for foreign business trips. So, every shopper and traveler must know the tax free definition. 

    Thus, since you are not a taxpayer of the country where your purchases were made, you can get a certain amount of money back for them, including VAT. However, you can only do this in stores that support the tax-free program.

    Social security tax guide

    Social security tax guide

    The General Federal program or social security Program is a program of insurance for old age, loss of a breadwinner, and disability. The General Federal program is the only, although the largest pension program that has a distributive nature. All other pension programs, both public and private, act as accumulative systems.

    The General Federal program was introduced by the law on social security and adopted in August 1935 by President F. Roosevelt. After the Second World War, and especially recently, OFP changed very quickly. From 1950 to 2000, payments under the program increased from $1 billion to $407 billion., and in 2011, they reached $873 billion. The number of recipients of pensions and other benefits for 1950-2011 increased from 3.5 million to 60 million people. 

    Federal income tax explanation

    Federal income tax explanation

    The basis of the revenue part of the American budget (about 70%) is federal taxes. The most important tools for managing the level of income of the population are several types of taxes: 

    • income tax on the wages of individuals and self-employed entrepreneurs;
    • mandatory corporate tax on excess profits of enterprises;
    • wealth tax;
    • sales tax and excise taxes;
    • contributions to the social insurance bodies;
    • unemployment tax. 

    Tax rates at the federal level are unchanged for all categories of payers. The object of taxation is the company's net profit or individual’s income.

    Income tax explanation

    Income tax explanation

    Timely and full payment of taxes is the key to the stable development of any state. In the entire system of taxation, direct taxes are the most important and bring the highest income to the general treasury. Income tax is one of the most important taxes among directly paid deductions.

    Income tax explanation

    Income tax definition

    Legal entities pay a portion of their profits to the state treasury each year based on the results of their financial activities, while individuals pay income tax. In fact, it is a tax paid on the amount of all received amounts or dividends (interest). This is an income tax definition. 

    How to make an income statement?

    How to make an income statement?

    Many businesses are required to produce a document, such as an income statement. This source assumes the inclusion of figures that reflect how effectively the company is operating — in terms of revenue generation and business profitability. It is quite easy to prepare the income statement. 

    Income statement preparation in few steps

    Some bookkeepers often ask, “What goes on an income statement?”. The income statement includes the following main items: profit (loss) as the results of the sale of goods or services, operating revenue, and expenses, income, and expenses incurred as a result of non-operating activities, expenses of the organization for the production of products. 

    Main Types of Income Statement

    Main Types of Income Statement

    Since making a profit is a goal of most organizations, the most important function of the accounting system is to provide information on the profitability of its activities. Funds received from profitable work may remain at the enterprise in order to finance the diversification of its activities, or be distributed in the form of dividends between owners of shares.

    Both the owners and managers of the enterprise want to know the size of the profit or loss incurred. The income statement is what people focus the most when they analyze the company. This statement tells how much a company might earn in a given period, and it is always related to a period (week, month, year). 

    Formats of an income statement

    Formats of an income statement

    There are many types of income statement. Some of them are used often, and others are used quite rarely. The most experienced accountants are acquainted well with the following types:

    • Classified income statement;
    • Comparative income statement;
    • Condensed income statement; 
    • Contribution margin income statement;
    • Cash basis income statement
    • Partial income statement.

    All of them have a different structure. Thus, one should use different methods and techniques of accounting to work with them. 

    What is the income statement?

    What is the income statement?

    The income statement analysis reveals the structure of the company's revenues and expenses, which allows them to be controlled in terms of items, types (areas) of an activity, product groups, and managers. Thus, the income statement definition is very simple. 

    Income statement simple definition

    Based on the analysis obtained in the context of various analysts, it is possible to prepare corrective measures to modify the pro forma income statement. For example, you can conclude the feasibility of developing or discontinuing any business lines, changing the product line or implementing KPI. Key Performance Indicators – a key indicator of performance results, the degree of achievement, and the cost of getting results for managers and departments.

    What is a ledger account?

    What is a ledger account?

    Ledger account is a way of the current interconnected reflection and grouping of property on structure and placement, on sources of its formation, and also economic operations on qualitatively homogeneous signs expressed in natural, monetary, and labor measures.

    The nature of economic impacts on the object of accounting has only two directions: increase or decrease, the essence of which is considered in the balance sheet generalization of information. In this regard, the ledger account is divided into two informative zones (accounting coordinates) - debit and credit. Each side (depending on the object of accounting reflected in the account) is intended to account for changes aimed at increasing or decreasing the initial indicator of the state of the accounted object. Now, you know, “What is a ledger account?” and why it is necessary.